The main earth moving operations associated with road construction are :-
(1) Stripping vegetation and topsoil
(2) Loosening material in cuttings and borrow pits
(3) Excavating material
(4) Loading material and hauling to the embankment (or to spoil)
(5) Spreading, shaping, watering, compacting and trimming the fill material.
STRIPPING VEGETATION AND TOP SOIL
Prior to excavating material for use in embankments , all surface vegetation must be stripped from the area to be excavated. This material is unsuitable for embankment construction but may be required together with the top soil for revegetating batters or for forming catch banks. Where batters are to be revegetated sufficient top soil (usually 50-100 mm) must also be removed to cover the batters to the required depth.
Also the whole surface on which embankments are to be constructed must be stripped of all grasses and other vegetable matter. This striping operation is usually best carried out with a dozer.
Any stripped material required for revegetation of batter or catch banks must be stockpiled in a location where it will readily be accessible when required during the construction of cutting and embankments but not in such a locations that it will obstruct the earth moving operations .