We discussed about planning of the earthworks operation in the previous post. All the earthworks construction and all the possible problems may arise has to plan before start the constructions and here we are going to outline the pre constructions planning of earthworks operation.
All the constructions matters which may arise and which should be considered at the pre construction planning and programming stage include :-
(a) Job Documents. Prior to any planning a through examination must be made of the project plans and specifications.
(b) Clearing and Surface Preparation. To avoid delays it is necessary to plan for this work to be carried out well ahead of the earthworks construction.
(c) Provision of Water for earthworks. Where there is no permanent water supply available, all the temporary water supply reservoirs, rivers,streams or any alternative must be located prior to commencing work so as to provide water for compaction.
(d) Service Alternations or Utility Line Relocation where earthworks constructions to be start. Re-locations to telephone, gas, electricity services etc. are a frequent source of delay. Arrangement for these alternations should be made as early as possible. Service authorities often need a great deal of time to plan and design the alternations, obtain materials and program work to fit in with their normal commitments.
(e) Slow and Difficult Work. Any section of the work which may be slow and difficult (e.g. a rock cutting) should be programmed for an early start so as to avoid possible delays to the whole earthwork job, consistent with other factors e.g. utilization of resources, overall economy.
(f) Provision for Traffic. The all the earthwork constructions must be planned to minimum inconvenience to traffic , and should be completed in sections avoiding long lengths of side track(bypass). Sections where side tracking(bypass) is difficult should be completed as quickly as possible.
(g) Wet Weather Effects -Rainy seasons. Sections of the work areas likely to be affected by rainy season or bad weather (e.g. boggy flats) should be constructed during the first available dry period. If left towards the end of the job, wet weather could delay the completion of the earthworks and additional costs may have to be incurred to treat saturated areas.
(h) Saturated and Unstable Areas. The ground on which embankments are to be placed should be inspected for wet or saturated areas so that these can be treated well ahead of construction.
Pre construction planning of earthworks in road constructions may vary with large no of factors. We are going to discuss, how to determine daily productions, how many machines are going to apply and material haulage, selections of materials etc.And also effect different geographic locations like hill areas, marshy areas for earthworks in road constructions.