Shoulder Preparation

1.0 Introduction
Shoulder construction would be carried out according to the designed cross sections and this work shall consist of excavation, backfilling and the provision of shoulder filter drain.

2.0 Abbreviation

QAE    – Quality Assurance Engineer
SE    – Site Engineer
TO    – Technical Officer
QAS    – Quality Assurance System
ME    – Materials Engineer (Contractor)

3.0    Resource Allocation

3.1   Man Power
• Site Engineer-01
• Supervisor-01
• Flagmen ( If necessary)-02
• Surveyor-01
• Surveyor helpers-05
• SK/USK  labours-08
• Operators- As required

3.2   Equipment & Tools

•    Back-hoe loader
•    Wheel Loader( If necessary)
•    Dump trucks(15 tons)
•    Rammers
•    Compacting rollers
•    Level instrument
•    Mortar pans
•    Mamoties
•    Pick axes
•    Crow-bars
•    Wheel barrows
•    Shovels

4.0 Quality Control Procedures

4.1 Sampling and testing
Shoulder material:
Samples of soil would be taken from the locations approved by the Engineer and those samples would be placed in a polythene bag providing identification tag. All required tests would be carried out in the materials testing laboratory according to the frequencies specified in the technical specification to confirm whether the material is suitable to be used as shoulder materials. Required test would be carried out after placing and compacting to check the degree of compaction.

4.2 Inspection Check list
To ensure that the all activities being performed with the expected quality, an inspection check list would be filled by the person in charge for the shoulder construction in case of preconstruction, during construction. The inspection check list shall include the specific requirements, safety and environmental measures.

4.3 Dimension Control
Shoulder construction would be carried out according to the designed cross sections. The required slope, depth and length of the excavation would be properly maintained during construction and those requirements would be checked with the inspection check list.

5.0 Methodology
5.1 Excavation for the Existing shoulder
• Necessary excavation would be done using back hoe loaders or manual means up to the required level.
• Levels of excavation would be marked by the surveyor using pegs.
• All the unsuitable materials would be disposed to approved location or as directed by the Engineer.

Methodology Flow Chart

5.2 Placing & Compaction of Shoulder materials
• The exposed surface would be trimmed by using suitable mechanical devise to eliminate the unevenness of the surface for proper compaction.
• The exposed surface would be compacted by using mechanical tampers or using vibrator rollers and the compaction would be done in series of over lapping for both directions.
• The shoulder materials would be made to have an effective breaking down before it is placed     on the prepared surface to facilitate the compaction.
• The shoulder materials would be placed on top of the prepared surface in layers not exceeding 225mm for compaction.
• Compaction would be preceded using 5-10 tons smooth wheeled rollers or any other roller of comparable compactive effort.
• Before laying shoulder materials, required amount of water would be added to achieve the optimum moisture content.

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