Project Management

Road Construction Organizational Structures

We already discussed about organizing a road construction project and it is next step of the project management under project planing. These steps needed to carry out make project success. The  three  common   organizational structures   used  in   road  construction  projects   to accomplish effective project management are: –

(1)  Where employees are directly responsible to site engineer.

(2)  Where  each  road work gang  is  responsible  to  a  sectional  foreman  (who  is  responsible  to  the  site engineer).

(3)  Where several road work gangs are responsible to one sectional foreman (who is responsible to the site engineer).

A  good  organizational  structures are  essential  in  any  enterprise.  Any  organization  which cannot be charted is likely to be illogical and confusing.

These relationships are depicted below in simple chart forms.

(1)  All employees responsible to Site Engineer.


This organizational structure is suitable for small projects since there is a practical limit to the number of men one foreman can direct and, in the case of unskilled labor, instruct.

This  type  of  organization  is  simple  and  has  the  advantage  of  a  single  line  of  authority understood by all.

(2)  Each gang responsible to a sectional foreman

Here a sectional foreman controls all employees working in his particular field and he is himself responsible to the Site Engineer.
This  organization  is  suitable  for  larger  jobs  where  the  amount  of  work  warrants  a separate  foreman  to  control  each  type  of  work  or  where  the  nature  of  an  activity  requires
specialist skills {e.g. Bitumen gang –  Bitumen  foreman).

(3)  Several gangs responsible to one Site Engineer


This type of organization is used where the work load of the site engineer is such that he needs assistance.

Whether a sectional foreman or a ganger is needed depends on: –

• The time required to adequately supervise the operation.

• The difficulty of controlling the operation.
(e. g. It is very easy for a dozer stockpiling gravel in a pit to dig too deep and include in the stockpile undesirable material from the pit floor. Therefore close and continuous supervision of this operation is required -probably by an experienced pit ganger. )

• The cost of the operation.
(e. g. An earthworks gang would cost far more per day than a stone pitching gang. Therefore the  earthworks  gang should be given greater supervision. )

• Distance between operations. Spread-out operations may require additional gangers foremen.

Good organization is essential for efficient  project management  for it :-

(1)  Encourages  employees  and  staff  to  co-operate  so  as  to  achieve  high  productivity  and quality.

(2)  Gives the highest possible degree of job satisfaction to individual employee groups.

Irrespective  of  the  type  of  structure used, each man must know what he has to do and who his boss is.
Next step of the project planning of project management   in road construction project is, how to allocate peoples for particular job function and how to maximize effectiveness towards project progress.