Previous part of the terms used in earthworks can be accessed here. These typical terms are used in earthworks in regularly.
Cutting : That portion of the road where the finished road surface is below natural surface.
Earthworks : All operations involved in loosening, removing and depositing or compacting earth, soil, or rock; or the material when so placed.
Embankment * : A bank or fill.
Fill : • The depth from the finished road surface to the natural surface below.
• That portion of a road where the pavement surface is above the natural surface.
Grade : • To design the longitudinal profile of a road.
• To secure a predetermined level of inclination to a road or other surface.
• To shape or smooth an earth, gravel, or other surface by means of a motor grader or similar implement.
• To arrange aggregate or other material in accordance with particle sizes.
Grading : The percentage of the various grain sizes present in a soil or other material.
Grading : The operation of shaping the surface of a road to a definite longitudinal and cross section , either mechanically or by hand.
Grubbing *: The removal from the ground of trees, roots, stumps, small rocks etc. to a depth of one foot below the surface of the ground.
Haul : The distance through which material is transported between points of leading and unloading.
Pit : An open surface working from which sand, gravel, or earth is excavated from its natural bed.
Selected filling : Filling in accordance with requirements set out.
Settlement : A downward movement of the soil or of the structure it supports by the reduction of the voids in the underlying ground.
Side cut : That portion of a road on sloping ground where one edge only of the formation is in cut and the other edge is on the natural surface or on fill.
Sidelong (ground) : Sloping transversely to the road.
Spoil : Surplus excavated material.
Stockpile : A heap or stack of material held in stock for future use.
Stripping : The removal of the upper layer or soil or over burden (including contained roots, humus or stones); or the material so removed.
Sub-grade : The trimmed or prepared portion of the formation on which the pavement is constructed.
Surface formation : The excavation, removal and proper utilization in low embankment construction of material from the route of the road or from borrow pits, usually adjacent to the road.
Tamping : • The compaction of a loose material or a surfacing by repeated blows.
• The placing and packing of filling material in a drill hole, either above the explosive charges or between and above the explosive charges .