Earth Works Road Construction

Terms Used in Earthworks – Part2

Previous part of the terms used in earthworks can be accessed here. These typical terms are used in earthworks in regularly.

Cutting : That portion of the road where the finished road surface is below natural surface.

Earthworks : All operations involved in loosening, removing and depositing or compacting earth, soil, or rock; or the material when so placed.

Embankment * : A bank or fill.

Fill : • The depth from the finished road surface to the natural surface below.
• That portion of a road where the  pavement surface  is above the natural surface.

Grade : • To design the longitudinal profile of a road.
• To secure a predetermined level of inclination to a road or other surface.
• To shape or smooth an earth, gravel, or other surface by means of a motor grader or similar implement.

• To arrange aggregate or other material in accordance with particle sizes.

Grading : The percentage of the various grain sizes present in a soil or other material.

Grading : The operation of shaping the surface of a road to a definite longitudinal and cross section , either mechanically or by hand.

Grubbing *: The removal from the ground of trees, roots, stumps, small rocks etc. to a depth of one foot below the surface of the ground.

Haul : The distance through which material is transported between points of leading and unloading.

Pit : An open surface working from which sand, gravel, or earth is excavated from its natural bed.

Selected filling : Filling in accordance with requirements set out.

Settlement : A downward movement of the soil or of the structure it supports by the reduction of the voids in the underlying ground.

Side cut : That portion of a road on sloping ground where one edge only of the formation is in cut and the other edge is on the natural surface or on fill.

Sidelong (ground) : Sloping transversely to the road.

Spoil : Surplus excavated material.

Stockpile : A heap or stack of material held in stock for future use.

 Stripping  : The removal of the upper layer or soil or over burden (including contained roots, humus or stones); or the material so removed.

Sub-grade : The trimmed or prepared portion of the formation on which the  pavement  is constructed.

Surface formation : The excavation, removal and proper utilization in low  embankment construction  of material from the route of the road or from borrow pits, usually adjacent to the road.

Tamping : • The compaction of a loose material or a surfacing by repeated blows.
• The placing and packing of filling material in a drill hole, either above the explosive charges or between and above the  explosive charges .

Earth Works Road Construction

Terms Used in Earthworks – Part 1

The following terms used in earthworks regularly. You need to understand these terms thoroughly will help you to read and communicate with others very well.  

Backfilling     :  The material replaced in an excavation.

Batter              :The uniform side slope of walls, banks, cuttings etc.The  degree of such slope, usually expressed as – horizontal to 1 vertical as distinct from grade.

Batter             :  To from a uniform side slope to a wall, bank, or cutting.

Bench             : A ledge cut in the batter of a cutting in a curve to provide sight distance. A ledge cut or formed in the batter of a cutting or bank to provide greater security against slips.

 Borrow           :  Filling obtained by excavating at some point other than the cuttings required for the construction of the road.

Borrow          :  To obtain  filling  from some point other than the excavation required for the work.

Borrow pit   :  An excavation outside the formation limits for obtaining filling.

Box cut          :  That portion of the road where both sides are in cut.

Boxing            :  The space formed above the level of the sub-grade by the shoulders to receive the paving material.(Box)

Clearing   *    :  Felling of all trees and scrub – by cutting or breaking off not higher than 0.7 m above ground level including the removal of all artificial obstructions including fences,old buildings, unless otherwise specified.  (  Grubbing )

Compaction  :  The process of reducing the volume of a material by including the closer packing of its particles by rolling, tamping, or other mechanical means.

Compact       :  To reduce the volume of a material by including the closer packing of its particles by rolling, tamping or other mechanical means.

Consolidation :  The process by which earth or soil reduces in volume over a period of time usually involving loss of water.

Consolidate  :  To reduce in volume naturally.

Cut                   :  The depth from natural surface of the ground to the finished road surface below.

Next part of the terms in  earthwork construction  can be accessed here. These typical terms are used in construction works in regularly