Earth Works Road Construction

Terms Used in Earthworks – Part2

Previous part of the terms used in earthworks can be accessed here. These typical terms are used in earthworks in regularly.

Cutting : That portion of the road where the finished road surface is below natural surface.

Earthworks : All operations involved in loosening, removing and depositing or compacting earth, soil, or rock; or the material when so placed.

Embankment * : A bank or fill.

Fill : • The depth from the finished road surface to the natural surface below.
• That portion of a road where the  pavement surface  is above the natural surface.

Grade : • To design the longitudinal profile of a road.
• To secure a predetermined level of inclination to a road or other surface.
• To shape or smooth an earth, gravel, or other surface by means of a motor grader or similar implement.

• To arrange aggregate or other material in accordance with particle sizes.

Grading : The percentage of the various grain sizes present in a soil or other material.

Grading : The operation of shaping the surface of a road to a definite longitudinal and cross section , either mechanically or by hand.

Grubbing *: The removal from the ground of trees, roots, stumps, small rocks etc. to a depth of one foot below the surface of the ground.

Haul : The distance through which material is transported between points of leading and unloading.

Pit : An open surface working from which sand, gravel, or earth is excavated from its natural bed.

Selected filling : Filling in accordance with requirements set out.

Settlement : A downward movement of the soil or of the structure it supports by the reduction of the voids in the underlying ground.

Side cut : That portion of a road on sloping ground where one edge only of the formation is in cut and the other edge is on the natural surface or on fill.

Sidelong (ground) : Sloping transversely to the road.

Spoil : Surplus excavated material.

Stockpile : A heap or stack of material held in stock for future use.

 Stripping  : The removal of the upper layer or soil or over burden (including contained roots, humus or stones); or the material so removed.

Sub-grade : The trimmed or prepared portion of the formation on which the  pavement  is constructed.

Surface formation : The excavation, removal and proper utilization in low  embankment construction  of material from the route of the road or from borrow pits, usually adjacent to the road.

Tamping : • The compaction of a loose material or a surfacing by repeated blows.
• The placing and packing of filling material in a drill hole, either above the explosive charges or between and above the  explosive charges .

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